Ethylene Glycol is a Toxic Antifreeze - so it is not in PunctureSafe
PunctureSafe does not contain Ethylene Glycol. It took us years to find a non glycol anti freeze which was suitable for use in a tyre sealant and that was non toxic. Ethylene Glycol is one of the most toxic substances used in tyre sealants worldwide because 2 teaspoons of Ethylene Glycol can kill an adult within 2 days. Our biggest concern was for the regular users of our tyre sealant who could be poisoned by absorption through the skin, eventually getting a build up of kidney stones (calcium oxalate crystals). Because the body cannot remove these calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys, a build up over time could be fatal. Our other concern was for the passengers of a car breathing in the Ethylene Glycol vapours from a very hot severely damaged flat tyre placed in the boot. Also because children and pets could have access to tyre sealants that contain Ethylene Glycol and because we have a duty of care policy we considered it irresponsible to use this in our products. We have always supplied a glycol free sealant which is 100% non toxic and 95% organic.
Ethylene Glycol poisoning can be divided into three stages. Stage one includes central nervous system (CNS) disturbances and gastrointestinal symptoms. Stage two includes signs of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic irregularities and stage three includes renal failure brought on by the precipitation of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules and from the direct toxic action of oxalic and glycolic acids upon the kidneys. Safety standards in the world are not as advanced as the UK and the majority of these E/G sealants are coming in from North America.
The major danger from Ethylene Glycol is ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, children and animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. Ethylene glycol poisoning is a medical emergency and in all cases a poison control centre should be contacted or medical attention should be sought. It is highly toxic with an estimated LD100 in humans of approximately 1.4 ml/kg. However, as little as 30 milliliters (2 tablespoons) can be lethal to adult. For Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet, CLICK HERE.
Symptoms of Ethylene Glycol poisoning usually follow a three-step progression, although poisoned individuals will not always develop each stage. Stage one consists of neurological symptoms including victims appearing to be intoxicated, exhibiting symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, slurred speech, and confusion. Over time, the body metabolises Ethylene Glycol into other toxins, first to glycolaldehyde, which is then oxidized to glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid, and finally oxalic acid. Stage 2 is a result of accumulation of these metabolites and consists of tachycardia, hypertension, hyperventilation, and metabolic acidosis. Stage 3 of ethylene glycol poisoning is the result of kidney injury, leading to acute kidney failure. Oxalic acid reacts with calcium and forms calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney. An estimated 80% of kidney stones are calcium oxalate.
Ethylene Glycol is a good anti freeze additive in a tyre sealant but that might have been OK throughout the 1960s but we think that is unacceptable today. We at PunctureSafe knowing that children/pets can have access to a tyre sealant and that unaware and untidy installers will allow the sealant soak through their skin, we decided to invest in years of laboratory research to find a non toxic alternative that would complement the sealing properties of our sealant. During our research and development we discovered that everything available came with their own problems when added into a tyre sealant and this was probably why no manufacturer in this industry bothered to invest the huge amounts in time and money needed to find the perfect non toxic antifreeze suitable for a product going to the general public. We did it, but it was exhaustive. We are now satisfied in the knowledge that we have a safety product that will not be harmful to the unsuspecting.